Корпоративні зобов’язання з прав людини у сфері соціально- економічних прав

Корпоративні зобов’язання з прав людини у сфері соціально- економічних прав

Автор(и)

  • Йерней Летнар Чернич Новий Університет, Slovenia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21564/2707-7039.1.247453

Ключові слова:

корпоративні зобов’язання, права людини, соціально-економічні права, бізнес і права людини, корпорації, міжнародне право

Анотація

У розділі досліджуються зобов’язання бізнесу у сфері соціально-економічних прав. Автор виходить із розуміння важливості соціально-економічних прав для забезпечення засобів існування людей та створення людських можливостей, а також фундаментального їх характеру з точки зору здійснення цивільних і політичних прав. Автор певен, що не лише держави, а й корпорації мають певні зобов’язання у сфері соціально-економічних прав. Через те, що соціально-економічні права пов’язані з фінансовими ресурсами, корпорації можуть значно сприяти їх забезпеченню в умовах неспроможності з боку держави.
Автор робить аналіз міжнародних документів, порівнює національні системи права, а також інші джерела (рішення договірних органів з прав людини), на підставі чого робить висновок про те, що корпоративні зобов’язання отримують свою легітимність внаслідок горизонтального застосування національного та міжнародного права прав людини. Відзначається, що значну роль у процесі утвердження зобов’язань бізнесу у сфері соціально-економічних прав відіграють Керівних принципи ООН щодо бізнесу і прав людини, Керівні принципи ОЕСР для транснаціональних підприємств, Глобальний договір ООН і Тристороння декларація МОП та інші.
Автор також аналізує значення добровільних зобов’язання як окремих корпорацій, так і окремих секторів, які є частиною внутрішньої корпоративної політики, та висуває думку про їх сумнівну юридичну природу (lex imperfecta), оскільки вони не передбачають санкцій за їх порушення.
Аналізуючи особливості корпоративних зобов’язань у сфері соціально-економічних прав, автор бере за основу негативну та позитивну дихотомію прав людини, а також підхід, втілений у міжнародному праві прав людини про три типи зобов’язань у сфері прав людини – поважати, захищати, забезпечувати. Автор робить висновок, що у межах кожного із типів зобов’язань щодо соціально-економічних прав корпорації несуть як превентивні (негативні і позитивні), так і деякі коригувальні (негативні та позитивні) зобов’язання, особливо там, де вони здійснюють контроль та/або вплив у безпосередній близькості від своїх операцій.

Біографія автора

Йерней Летнар Чернич, Новий Університет

професор конституційного права і права прав людини Факультету управління та європейських студій і факультету права

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БІЗНЕС І ПРАВА ЛЮДИНИ: ПЕРСПЕКТИВА НОВОГО С УСПІЛЬНОГО ДОГОВОРУ